Journal of Water Resources Science and Technology No.24
Create date: 12/20/14

No 23 (December/2014)










Institute of Water Management and Economics 35 years of establishment and development

Assoc.Prof. Loi, Doan The



Institute of Water Management and Economics 35 years of construction and development and improvement of policy mechanism is the most important solution to restructure the irrigation sector and create the motivation to improve the efficiency hydraulic works exploitation

Assoc.Prof. Loi, Doan The

Irrigation activity has been being revealed some problems and is facing to difficulties and challenges in front of new development requirements of the nation in generally and agricultural sector in particularly. In fact, the water use demand is higher and higher together with negative impacts of climate change and sea water level rising. Flooding and drought occur more seriously. Benefit conflicts among water use sectors is more severely. Almost all of the irrigation and drainage systems were constructed ten years ago, which were damaged and degraded and could not satisfy with water use demand of the modern and diversification agricultural production. Exploitative productivity of the irrigation systems is very low; the policy mechanisms in O&M management are insufficient, slow reform toward to market mechanism. This has influenced to operational efficiency of the irrigation systems. Completing institutional framework and policy aiming to enhance exploitative productivity of existing irrigation systems is considering as an important and imperative task at present, which needs low investment cost but could get very huge achievement. It is considered as the most practical activity to successfully implement the agricultural restructure. This paper analyzed and suggested some solutions for completing institutional framework and policy to enhance exploitative productivity of the existing irrigation systems.      


Improve the quality of human resources in irrigation management

Assoc.Prof. Loi, Doan The

MSc. Anh, Nguyen Tuan

BA. Linh, Hoang Thi Thuy

Agriculture sector is now managing a thousand of large and small irrigation schemes, which are serving for agricultural production, socio-economic development and contributing to protection of environment and ecology-systems. It is difficult to accurately estimate the total monetary value of the existing irrigation works that invested and built by the state and communities from hundred  years ago. But it is  sure that the total costs for construction of irrigation works is quite large, estimated by thousands of US$ billions. To well manage existing irrigation schemes, it requires reasonable human resources qualification. However, the quantity and quality of human resource in irrigation management organization are still very poor. There are a lot of irrigation staffs  but not many strong and professional. In this article, the authors try to assess the current status on human resources in irrigation management agencies and then suggest several ways for development, capacity building of organizations and individuals who are participating in management of irrigation works at the moment.


Renovating the mindset or reforming mechanism to improve the efficiency of irrigation management? Some experience in Tuyen Quang

Assoc.Prof. Loi, Doan The

MSc. Dinh, Nguyen Thi

MSc.  Khai, Dao Quang

Enhancing the operational efficiency of available irrigation and drainage works to support better agricultural production, livelihood, socio-economy and eco-environment is considered as the most important task of irrigation and drainage sector, especially in context of continuing to reduce public investment to sustain macro economy as specified in Resolution no 11 on 24 February 2011 of government. To make strong innovation step in field of management, exploitation of irrigation and drainage works, innovation of management mechanism is considered as a focal mission. Regarding to above direction mentioned, in recent years, particularly after implementing the policy on remission of irrigation and drainage fee based on Degree no 115/2008/NĐ-CP on 14 November 2011 of government, MARD issued many rules on management and exploitation of irrigation and drainage works with aims at changing management mechanism. There have emerged some new management models which have brought about considerable achievements such as models of Bac Vam Nao project management committee in An Giang; Irrigation and drainage service management committee in Ha Noi; Management and exploitation of irrigation and drainage works committee in Tuyen Quang; Canh Dong 8/4 agricultural service cooperative (Buon Tria commune, Lăk district and Thanh Binh cooperative (Dur kmũl commune, Krông ana district) in Đăk Lắc province; My Hoi Dong agricultural cooperative in An Giang province ….

However, some provinces are not determined to innovate the management mechanism. It is hard to understand the causes of this delay/reluctancy given the fact that the national government has provided direction. Is it like “senior call, but junior ignore (in English) and “trên đã hô mà dưới không ủng in Vietnamese” or is it due to the mechanism of subsidy which has resulted in dependency, sluggishness, and reluctancey?Perhaps the innovation of the management mechanism should start with changing management thinking, especially thinking of the leadership. This paper will discuss some key points related to this process of change in order to improve effectiveness and efficiency of the management and exploitation of irrigation and drainage in Tuyen Quang province.


Study and propose the model of organization and management of exploitation of irrigation works in the Mekong river delta

Dr. Hanh, Dang Ngoc

Operation and management (O&M) of irrigation and drainage systems after construction stage is great significance on effective of investment project. However, in Mekong delta area, the Government has been being invest thousands of Vietnamese dong to construct irrigation and drainage structures and canals but the O&M has not being proper interest both scale organizations and humans resources to operation. In this report, from field research, current irrigation systems, policy and tendency of reform in O&M of hydraulic structure and the current of irrigation and drainage management organization (IDMO) in Mekong delta areas, the Author has been being recommended some models of provincial and inter-provincial IDMO to improve the effective of operation hydraulic systems and to meet the policy and tendency of reform in O&M hydraulic systems in Mekong delta areas.


Viewpoints and practical lessons in institutional reform of irrigation management in Vietnam

MSc. Dao, Dinh Van

Agricultural development toward to market orientation requires activities supplying input services for it like irrigation and and drainage services which also have to change to satisfy the requirement and demand. The innovation in irrigation and drainage management needs to be developed on basis of clear concepts, specific and and scientific approaches which are suitable with general context of the nation. The paper would display the concept or approaches to define and understand the priority activities as a method to assess the irrigation situation and suggest the pathway for irriation development in new context. It also shows understanding about the institutional arrangement and key activities and points priorized as the first impacts which are very important and could gradually solve the constraints in irrigation and drainage management. The real experience for defining the irrigation and drainage situation, priority selections, institutional arrangement, relationship among the actors and players will be shown as its initiative achievements of innovation process in Tuyen Quang in which reforming policy mechanism is considered as a core and most priority factor in whole process .


The policy of renovation of labor management and salary in one-member limited liability companies managing the exploitation of irrigation works

MSc. Cham, Giang Nhu, MSc. Anh, Nguyen Tuan

Implementation of the Law of Labour, revised in 2012 and validated from 1/5/2013, the Government issued new policy on management of labor and wages in One Member Stated-owned Limited Company. In which, One Member Limited Company for Management of Irrigation and Drainage (IMDC) is now operating followed market orientation, autonomy. They are by themselve making labour cost norms that pay to employee in their own organization (using their norms instead of norms defied in Decree No.205). However, after 1 year of implementation at the nation-wide, no IMDC has success due to some problems. This article analyses some challenges when conducting mentioned policy IDMC and provides some suggestion for improvement.


Study the impact of rising prices of materials, electricity and the increase of wages to the actual level of irrigation fee - propose some policy measures in the management of irrigation works

Dr. Hanh, Dang Ngoc

Irrigation service fee (ISF) has been allocated in Vietnam Dong and has not concerning to the variation of market labour, electrical energy and material costs... In general, it made finacial imbalance of an irrigation and drainage company. The changing of metioned costs in irrigation and drainage companies shows that, the Irrigation service fee is depreciated in several years of implementation of Decree No 143/2003/NĐ-CP, the "real ISF" at 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 decreased about 1,12%; 10,96%; 27,31%; and 30,41% in comparing with ISF value in 2003; similarly during the years of implementation of Decree No 115/2007/NĐ-CP, the "real ISF” at 2010, 2011 and 2012 decreased about 9,24; 22,55; and 43,68% in comparing with ISF value in year 2009.

From this research above, the author has recommendations that some of apropriate policies and measures to overcome the price fluctuation impacting management activities of irrigation and drainage companies.


Removing policy barriers to mobilize the private sector to invest in the construction and management of rural water supply facilities. Assoc.Prof. Loi, Doan The

Human resources and its development is an important factor deciding the development of the nation, existence of all organizations and enterprises. In stage of knowledge economy, human resource quality is considered as the decision factor with prosperousness of every nation. The development and improvement of human resources are both current affairs and strategic goals through process of social economic development of all nations.

The Agricultural sector has been managing ten thousands of irrigation systems both in term of small and large scale for agricultural production, livelihood, social economics and contribution in environmental protection. It is very difficult to estimate the money value of the existing irrigation and drainage systems which are invested and constructed by state and people for hundreds of years, but it is a hug amount and it is estimated about billions of USD. To manage and use well the current irrigation system, the quality of the human resources plays a very vital role. Thus, quantity and quality of human resources in O&M management currently exists many insufficient issues, large in quantity but low in quantification, high amount but weakness causing serious imbalance in qualification structure, profession and experience … Human resources of almost of the O&M entities doesn’t satisfy the requirement regulated. This paper will assess the status and suggest solutions on human resources development and capacity building for organizations and person participating in O&M management in current period.


Some issues on the construction,managementof centralized water supply infrastructure in Vietnam

MSc. Tuan, Truong Cong

Tổ chức quản lý khai thác vận hành sau giai đoạn xây dựng là không thể thiếutrongdự án cấp nước tập trung, là nhân tố quan trọng quyết định sự bền vững của công trình.Trong bài viết nàytác giả đã tổng hợp một số quan điểm khoa học khác nhau khi xem xét toàn diện mô hình tổ chức quản lý công trìnhcấp nước tập trung, bao gồm các khía cạnhkinh tế-xã hội, điều kiện tự nhiên,kỹ thuật-công nghệ, cơ chế-chính sách và xem xét đến thực tiễn ở Việt Nam.Kết quả nghiên cứu đã đề xuất một số vấn đề và giải pháp cần quan tâm trong phát triển tổ chức quản lý nhằm nâng cao hiệu quả khai thác các hệ thống cấp nước tập trung đã, đang và sẽ xây dựng trong thời gian tới.


Cost norms for testing materials, structures and structures - some shortcomings need to be adjusted

MSc. Ha, Nguyen Manh

In the Cost Norms for building project decided by the Minister of Construction and published in the legal document No. 1780/BXD-VP on 16 August 2007 (the document No. 1780), the norms on testing materials and structural components were identified. This is important basis for constructing firms and individuals to refer and use for estimating the project’s costs and managing investment. However, during implementation of the document No. 1780, it even shows several gaps. For that reason, this paper try to address the limitations of that legal document and also propose some futher supplemented norm items for the testing works that have not yet indicated in the document No. 1780.


Establishment of irrigation construction norms - Current status and solutions

MSc. Ha, Nguyen Manh

In the national legal documents concern with management of constructional investment (Construction Law and related Decree for instruction), the government has assigning the research, consultancy works and decision authority for a speccific Ministry. It is an effort to enhancing the quality of legal document.. The purpose of paper is to present the current status, gaps, and constrains in formulating norms for construction ofwater resource works and then propose the ways to make beter legal documentfor managing the investment and projetc’s costs

13 Results of water productivity research and optimum model of irrigation system for rice Dr. Dat, Tran Van

This article presents and discuses on the results of field research on water productivity in irrigated rice system, with taking in to consideration of several cultivating techniques. Based on the water balance, this study conducted measurement and accounting for most of the water components on rice field surface. Combining with other recorded data such as biomass and rice yield, potential evapotranspiration, the water productivities of rice were determined. Analysic results show that water productivities widely varied, depends rice cultivating modes. In particular growth period, water sensitivity indexes of rice are also quite different in comparison between conventional and SRI methods. The results of application of field research and optimization model (maximizing profits) have assisting management agencies to analysis and select appropriate scenario for reasonably operating their irrigation systems while water resources is shortage at the headwork.

14 Determining the fuel cost for additional irrigation pumping in uncertain conditions of Lien Son Irrigation Co., Ltd

MSc. Anh, Nguyen Tuan

BA. Quy, Dinh Van

Characteristics of Vinh Phuc province in particular and highlands in general is the fragmentation of irrigated area. Providing irrigation service for those areas is facing many difficulties. Contract based management is considered as a effective measure to improve the irrigation service quality. However, the problem is that irrigation water delivery is very much dependent on the weather, the technical characteristics of the pumps and operational modes. For the on-farm pumping systems, the determination of fuel costs is more complex in because of several uncertainties. With the aim of establishing the costs of on-farm pumps for serving operational activity management of Lien Son Limited irrigation management company, in this paper the authors would like to discuss about the methods and application of Monte Carlo and futher Crystal Ball software to predict the fuel cost of pumps for irrigation. The results show quite consistence between the application and company’s actual management.


Testing results of thin-walled weir to control the water in rice fields

Dr. Dat, Tran Van, MSc. Huy, Doan Quang

Proper management of water on the rice fields foloowing reasonable irrigation regimes is succesfully tested for improvement of rice productivity, saving water and production costs or reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, in practices, the management of water on the field surface is always in trouble for many reasons, including the irrigation infrastructure and technical sides. For this context, in the this paper, the authors discuss the an experimental results with represenatve types of water control works, which have been disigned and constrcuted by the Institute for Water Resources Economics and Management. The research results show that this works can be widely applied in other similar irrigation systems.


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