Journal of Water Resources Science and Technology No.50
Create date: 12/24/18

WATER RESOURCES SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
No 50 (Dec/2018
)

Page

Article

Author

Summary

I

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

 

 

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VIỆN NƯỚC, TƯỚI TIÊU VÀ MÔI TRƯỜNG - 10 NĂM HOẠT ĐỘNG VÀ PHÁT TRIỂN

Phong, Nguyen Tung

IWE

 

 

 

9

DẤU ẤN CHẶNG ĐƯỜNG  PHÁT TRIỂN  KHOA HỌC CÔNG NGHỆ THỦY NÔNG TRONG SỰ NGHIỆP PHÁT TRIỂN ĐẤT NƯỚC 60 NĂM QUA

Anh, Nguyen Tuan

 Director of Science and Technology Program for New Rural Development

 

19

KHOA HỌC CÔNG NGHỆ QUẢN LÝ HẠN HÁN VÙNG NAM TRUNG BỘ VÀ TÂY NGUYÊN

Phong, Nguyen Tung
Duong, Ha Hai
Tien, Nguyen Minh

IWE

Drought is one of natural disasters occurring in everywhere event in high or low rainfall areas, also in dry and rainy season and it tends to increase in the future. In Vietnam in general and in South Centre and Highland region in particular, drought happens very often and just after after the storm and floods with trend to be more serious due to the impacts of climate change extreme events. Over the years, Vietnam has made a lot of efforts in the implementation of drought adaptation and management measures, especially in the application of advanced tools for dorought monitoring and forecasting as well as application of modern technology for real time monitoring in the reservoirs and important water distribution points to prepare for drought, water shortage. These efforts, however, are not sufficient to ensure effective response to the immediate and potential impacts of drought. Therefore, it is neccessary to apply science and technology in response actively to drought including drought forcasting and early warning, developing drought scenarios, drought damage assessment, a list of priorityand integrated measures to minimize the effects of drought, and in particular the impact of drought on water supply for agricultural production. This paper will present some tools and results of scientific and technological application which have been piloted in some provinces in the South Central and Central Highlands provinces in responding to drought for agriculture production.

Keywords:Drought, water accounting, natural disaster risk management, agriculture production

28

NGHIÊN CỨU XÂY DỰNG HỆ THỐNG HỖ TRỢ QUẢN LÝ VÀ VẬN HÀNHKIỂM SOÁT MẶN CHO LƯU VỰC SÔNG
VU GIA - THU BỒN

Lam, Nguyen Xuan
Son, Nguyen Thien

IWE

Phong, Nguyen Tung

Trinh, Tran Duc

VAWR

Son, Hoang Thanh

Lan, Vu Thu

INSTITUTE OF GEOGRAPHY

The decision support system (DSS) for salinity control operation and management is a relatively new concept in Vietnam, although this concept has been introduced and applied in many countries over the world. The paper presents some results of developing the DSS for the salinity control planning and management for downstream area of the Vu Gia - Thu Bon river basin in the context of declining water sources and water-related disputes in the basin.

Keywords: Decision support system, operation and management, salinity control, river basin

38

XÂY DỰNG HỆ THỐNG GIÁM SÁT HẠN NÔNG NGHIỆP BẰNG DỮ LIỆU VỆ TINH, THÍ ĐIỂM TẠI TỈNH NINH THUẬN, VIỆT NAM

Minh, Nguyen Duc
Duong, Ha Hai
Tien, Nguyen Minh

IWE

 

 

As drought is expected to be more severe and more frequent in the future in many parts of the world according to various Global Circulation Models, decision makers in developing countries need more cost-effective supporting tools to quickly identify drought hotspot and to help giving better decisions, especially under unprecedented changing climate patterns.  The FAO’s AVHRR based Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS) developed by FAO to quickly identify agricultural drought hotspot in the context of monitoring global food supply and demands was calibrated specifically for Ninh Thuan province. The processing of remote sensing data was constrained by three specific agricultural conditions: (1) crop mask, to make sure only crop pixels were computed, (2) crop schedule, so the analysis is performed only during crop seasons, and (3) crop coefficient (Kc) to emphasize the sensitivity of each phenological stage to drought

Results showed that the most recorded severe drought years happened in Ninh Thuan are 1986, 1992, 1998, 2002, 2005 and 2015 which correlated strongly with El Nino events. Summer crop (from May to Aug) is the most “vulnerable to drought” season among the others, Spring crop (Jan to Apr) and Rainy crop (Sep to Nov). This system can help support to optimize the irrigation system in Ninh Thuan as well as mitigate of drought effect.

Keywords:Drought, Agricultural, Remote Sensing, ASIS, FAO, VHI

45

PHƯƠNG PHÁP XÁC ĐỊNH NĂNG SUẤT NƯỚC TƯỚI

Dung, Nguyen Thi Kim
Lam, Nguyen Xuan
Son, Nguyen Thien

IWE

Agriculture is the largest user of water, but it also has very low water use efficiency. As a result, the research on irrigation water productivity in the context of increasing water conflicts will contribute to solving the problem of sustainable and efficient agriculture development. Thepaper focuses on the existing methods, formulae for determining the water productivity; the factors that affecting to the results and to the calculating and finally propose the measures to improve irrigation water productivity.

Keywords: Water use efficiency, water productivity, irrigated agriculture, water-saving technology, irrigation water productivity

51

TƯỚI TIẾT KIỆM NƯỚC KẾT HỢP CANH TÁC TIÊN TIẾN - GIẢI PHÁP HIỆU QUẢ CHO CÂY TRỒNG CHỦ LỰC VÙNG KHAN HIẾM NƯỚC TRONG ĐIỀU KIỆN BIẾN ĐỔI KHÍ HẬU

Phong, Nguyen Tung

VAWR

Hung, Tran
Kieu, Nguyen Xuan

IWE

 

Climate change not only increases the drought and do water resources depletion but also changes the conditions of cultivation as well as growing conditions of crops. Water-saving irrigation is a tool to implement scientific solutions to effectively use resources in agricultural production such as irrigation, soil, fertilizer, labor, etc, in order adapt to extreme weather events caused by climate change, increase the value of agricultural production in a sustainable way. This article will introduce a number of research results on the application of water-saving irrigation technology in combination with advanced farming solutions for some key crops in arid regions and water scarcity sloping land areas.

60

QUY TRÌNH TƯỚI TIÊU KHOA HỌC CHO LÚA, GIẢM PHÁT THẢI KHÍ NHÀ KÍNH  (CH4, N2O) VÙNG ĐỒNG BẰNG SÔNG HỒNG

Quang, Le Xuan

IWE

 

 

The process of scientific irrigation for rice, water saving, and greenhouse gas emission reduction according to the experience of Japan is the result of research on the international cooperation project under the Protocol with Japan. The subject was tested in 6 crops (2015 ÷ 2017) in Phu Thinh commune, Kim Dong district, Hung Yen province by 3 irrigation formulas: Strong dry irrigation formula (drainage stage when the water level is -15 cm compared to the newly irrigated field surface), weak dry  irrigation formula (drainage period when the water level is -5 cm compared to the newly irrigated field surface) and traditional irrigation formula with a total area of 50.2 hectares . As a result, the average irrigation water volume of the strong dry plot was 65.7% and the weak dry plot was 74.2% compared to the traditional one. The weak dry area gives the highest yield of 7.60 tons/ha. The greenhouse gas emission in the three years, strong dry irrigation formula was the lowest , saved 35.47%  and the weak dry irrigation formula has reduced 30.21% compared to the traditional irrigation formula; the CH4 emission of the crop is from 1.97 to 7.13 times higher than that of the spring crop. From the research results, the proposed method of irrigation for rice applied to the Red River Delta is the combination of the weak dry irrigation formula and strong dry irrigation formula (drainage period when the water level is -10 cm compared to the field surface that to be re-irrigated); The process has total spring irrigation water from 3100 ÷ 3900 m3/ha; the autumn - summer crop is from 2500 ÷ 3400 m3/ha.

Keywords:Paddy field water management; Wetting and drying irrigation; Green house gas emission reduction.

74

HỆ THỐNG CẤP, THOÁT NƯỚC CHO NUÔI TÔM THẺ CHÂN TRẮNG VÙNG VEN BIỂN

Thai, Ha Van
Dong, Pham Van

IWE

Whiteleg shrimp is now going to be the main target species of the coastal provinces in the North Central Coast region. With an average yield of 10-20 tons/ ha/ feeding season, the whiteleg shrimp can reach the profit from 600 million VNĐ to 1000 million VNĐ/ ha/ feeding season, that resulting in many of the degraded and uncultivated lands have become “the golden lands” for the shrimp farming. Practice shows that besides the successes, there are still many problems, risks and unsustainability that the main causes are: Planning and constructing infrastructure of non-synchronous farming areas; the households are small, spontaneous and inexperienced in the arrangement of water supply and drainage systems; and there are no ponds that placed for water supply treatment, wastewater treatment. The consequence is the soil environment, polluted water, epidemic spread. This lead to more high risks in farming area and break the coastal ecosystem

The paper presents the results of the study to propose solution for arranging water supply and drainage system for the tidal area and sand culture area with 4 cases.(1) farming mode l with the water supply canals and drainage canals are separated and the sedimentation ponds and treatment ponds are concentratively arranged; (2) farming model with the storage and sedimentation ponds are concentratively arranged and the treatment ponds are dispersedly arranged; (3) farming model with the sedimentation ponds and the treatment ponds are dispersedly arranged; (4) farming model with the storage and sedimentation ponds are dispersedly arranged and the treatment ponds are dispersedly concentratively. This research will contribute to limiting of environmental pollution, disease and towards sustainable aquaculture production that can be replicated to other areas.

Keywords:water supply and drainage systems, whiteleg shrimp, coastal provinces, North Central Coast region.

81

CẢI THIỆN PHƯƠNG PHÁP TƯỚI TIÊU ĐỂ GIẢM THIỂU ĐỘ MẶN TRONG VÙNG RỄ NHẰM NÂNG CAO NĂNG SUẤT LÚA Ở VÙNG VEN BIỂN PHÍA BẮC VIỆT NAM THÔNG QUA KỸ THUẬT ĐỒNG VỊ VÀ CÁC KỸ THUẬT KHÁC LIÊN QUAN

Sinh, Duong Hai
Cuong, Khuong Minh

IWE

Nhan, Dang Duc

VINATOM

Anh, Ha Lan

 

Hà Lan Anh

Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology

L.K. Heng

International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA)

The purpose of this study was to search for an appropriate irrigation practice to replace the traditional one in order to mitigate salinity in root zone for improving the yield of the special “fragrance” rice varieties planted on Hapli Salic Fluvisols in a coastal area of the Hai Hau district, Nam Dinh province, North Vietnam. For this, isotopic combined with hydrogeological techniques were applied to investigate the source of salinity in water within the root zone. The techniques include: i) determination of the relationship between deuterium and oxygen-18 signatures (2H and 18O) in the local precipitation, in the irrigation water, and in water within root zone; ii) investigation into the relationship between concentrations of exchangeable Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ cations and concentration of chloride in soil-pore water; iii) investigation into the relation of the 18O and chloride concentration in water within the root zone. Knowing the source of salinity in the root zone one could be able to suggest a new irrigation practice to mitigate the salinity in the cultivated soil.

Key words: salt water intrusion; irrigation; oxygen-18 signature, Ca-Na cation exchange

93

QUY TRÌNH TƯỚI PHUN MƯA CHO CÂY HÀNH KHU VỰC MIỀN TRUNG

 

Quang, Le Xuan

IWE

 

Promoting the application of advanced irrigation technology, saving water for the dry crop is one of the important tasks set by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development during the implementation of the restructuring project. agriculture and irrigation with the target that by 2020, having 500,000 ha of upland crops will be applied with advanced irrigation technology and water saving.

The central region is the most drought area in the country, with the potential of extensive sandy soils being used for agricultural development. With efficiency in many aspects has been studied and verified in our country in recent time (saving water, significantly reducing the care and irrigation costs, contributing to increase income, etc...compared to traditional irrigation techniques), the application of water saving irrigation (sprinkle irrigation) for shallow plants in general and for onion in particular is very necessary, should be replicated.

The sprinkle irrigationprocessfor the small spring onion in the central region is one of the main products of the pilot project of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. "Complete technological solution and integrated advanced irrigation equipment, saving water, low cost  for short-term crops, vegetables and industrial crops". The model to improve the rainbow irrigation process for the small spring onion is located in Dien Thinh commune, Dien Chau district, Nghe An province with the scale of 2 ha, is monitored from 2016 ÷ 2017, the results have been completed the sprinkleirrigation process for small spring onion in the central region with the water level of 20 ÷ 35 m3/ha each time; total irrigation water volume for spring crop is 1060 ÷ 1250 m3/ha-crop; summer crop: 860 ÷ 1015 m3/ha-crop; autumn crop 840 ÷ 990 m3/ha-crop; winter crop 640 ÷ 755 m3/ha-crop. It is the scientific basis for the Directorate of Water Resources to issue and apply in the Central Region.

Keywords:The sprinkle irrigation process for small spring onion, water saving irrigation for crops

101

NGHIÊN CỨU KHẢO NGHIỆM CHẾ ĐỘ TƯỚI, ĐỀ XUẤT QUY TRÌNH TƯỚI TIẾT KIỆM NƯỚC CHO CÂY TIÊU VÙNG TÂY NGUYÊN BẰNG KỸ THUẬT TƯỚI NHỎ GIỌT VÀ PHUN MƯA TẠI GỐC

Kien, Bui Cong
Tuan, Doan Doan
Ban, Pham Van

CPIM

 

 

Black pepper is one of the main crops of Central Highland provinces. With an area accounting for over 50% of the pepper area of ​​the country, pepper has become a strategic crop, a rich crop of farmers in the region.

The provision of sufficient irrigation water is critical to pepper productivity and yield. However, nowadays, the people in the Central Highlands irriigate their black peper mainly based on their own experience, leading to the plants weakness, easy infection and low productivity.

This article, based on the analysis of the study on the irrigation regime for pepper in the Central Highlands, provides advanced water-saving irrigation technique norm for pepper in order to contribute to sustainable development of black pepper in the country.

Key words:Water saving, black peper, irrigation technique norm, the Central Highlands

109

NGHIÊN CỨU ĐỀ XUẤT GIẢI PHÁP XÃ HỘI HÓA ĐẦU TƯ VÀ QUẢN LÝ KHAI THÁC CÔNG TRÌNH CẤP NƯỚC SINH HOẠT NÔNG THÔN VÙNG TÂY BẮC

Ban, Pham Van
Tuan, Doan Doan
Dung, Tran Viet
CPIM

 

 

 

Over the past years, the Government has issued many policies and focused economic resources to develop rural water supply networks, especially for remote mountainous areas. However, operation and maintenance (O&M) works have not been paid proper attention, leading to situations of bad operation, even after a short time of operation. Uneffective operation of some works in the Northwest region are examples for the statement. Most rural water supply works in the region were handed over to local people or/and the communes’ government for O&M theirshelves. Lack of technical trainings for operators  is an issue that affecting O&M arrangement. Besides, most investments for rural water supply in the Northwest are only subsidy purposes, which aims to ensure social security. Thus most of the investment depends on the state budget, have not utilized socialization resources. Therefore, rural water supply investments, particularly O&M are facing many difficulties and challenges. This paper is to assess the status of participations of sides in investments, works management, and from the assessment results, to propose solutions for improving effectiveness of rural water supply works management in the Northwest region. 

Key words:socialize,Rural water supply, Management of rural water supply, Investment, Community

118

NGHIÊN CỨU DỰ BÁO CHẤT LƯỢNG NƯỚC TRONG HỆ THỐNG THỦY LỢI BẮC HƯNG HẢI THEO CÁC KỊCH BẢN PHÁT TRIỂN KINH TẾ XÃ HỘI ĐẾN NĂM 2020

Huong, Vu Thi Thanh
Phong, Nguyen Duc

IWE

Khoi, Nguyen Xuan

Department of Science Technology and Environment

Summary:The contents of the research is about the results of surface water quality forecasting in Bac Hung Hai hydraulic works system for socio-economic development scenarios up to 2020. Forecasting results showed that DO, BOD5, NH4+ in scenarios PT2 and PT3 not improved much compared to the scenario PT1. For the scenario PT4, surface water quality in the canal system is best improved. At 12 forecasting locations, only 1 location with DO, BOD5, NH4+ indicators did not meet the standards of irrigation water. In scenario PT5, the level of surface water pollution is very serious, 11/12 predicted locations have the concentration of DO, BOD5, NH4+ has exceeded the standards of irrigation water. Based on the forecast results, it is recommended that by 2020, the percentage of wastewater discharged should reach ≥ 90% to ensure water quality for irrigation. In case of wastewater treatment rate of 50-70%, it should be combined with many supporting measures such as: To upgrade and build new irrigation and drainage works to increase water supply and improve environmental flows; Operation of waste water discharge works to minimize water pollution.

Keywords:Surfacewater quality forecasting, Bac Hung Hai hydraulic workssystem, Socio-economic development scenario

129

NGHIÊN CỨU HIỆN TRẠNG VÀ MỘT SỐ ĐỊNH HƯỚNG VỀ
QUẢN LÝ MÔI TRƯỜNG NƯỚC TRONG HỆ THỐNG THỦY LỢI

Huong, Vu Thi Thanh
Chinh, Vu Quoc
Thao, Pham Thi Phuong

IWE

 

 

Based on the survey results in 13 irrigation systems representing the Northern, Central and Southern regions, the article shows evaluation of the status of water environment management (WEM) in the irrigation system, including: management capacity, financial resources, management documents, implementation activities such as monitoring and forecasting of water quality and irrigation operation to reduce water pollution, renovating and constructing new irrigation drainage works to improve environmental flow, managing waste, and controlling permission for discharge of wastewater into the irrigation system. The shortcomings in WEM in the irrigation system are causing the current water pollution situation and the trend is increasing. WEM in irrigation systems requires the participation of the whole political system, and the Agriculture and Rural Development sector should considere this a priority because unresolved water pollution will affect the sustainable agricultural development goals, affecting people and economic sectors.

Keywords:Management, Water environment, Irrigation system

139

GIẢIPHÁP CÔNG NGHỆ XỬ LÝ NƯỚC MƯA VÀ NƯỚC MẶT
PHỤC VỤ SINH HOẠT CHO NGƯỜI DÂN VÙNG TÂY BẮC

Hung, Tran
Kien, Pham Dinh
Quang, Le Xuan
Duc, Ngo Minh

IWE

Ban, Pham Van

CPIM

Lack of domestic water is an issue of North West mountainous area, which made the life of people living here being more difficult. There are many water supply stations constructed, water treatment methods applied, however many of them have worked ineffectively after a short time of operation, particularly output water of some water treatment systems did not meet standards stipulated in QCVN 02:2009/BYT – National technical regulations on domestic water quality. Based on the results of the survey/assessment of the current situations in 6 provinces in the Northwest region, scientific bases, and researches on applying advanced technologies in the field of water treatment, the authors proposed 03 technologies process for rain water and surface water treatment (at scales: households, organizations and household complex) to serve local people, and planning to build 6 domestic water treatment models for Lao Cai and Bac Kan provinces.

Keywords:domestic water, surface water, rain water, water treatment technology, solution for water treatment

 

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